Table 4 also reports the number of immigrants from each country who arrived in or later. Thus, the table reads as follows:
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Hidden in the text of the education section of South Africa's new National Development Plan is an intention that is much more radical than any previous higher education policy.
While previously higher education was regarded as an equity instrument, now for the first time it is acknowledged as a major development driver in the information-knowledge system.
Knowledge production and equity are linked within a more differentiated system. Two major policy goals are to double the participation rate and expand private higher education.
All these documents 'struggled' with the same basic policy issues: In each of the documents, the four central elements of higher education policy worldwide were addressed in different ways and with different emphases. But the dominant policy conundrum, brought back from exile by anti-apartheid intellectual Harold Wolpe aroundis the tension trade-off between equity and development.
NEPI stated the tension eloquently but, in its democratic participative mode, could not resolve it and argued for both - without explaining how that would be possible or what the trade-offs would be.
The NCHE, top-loaded with representatives from historically disadvantaged institutions, was always going to lean towards equity and democracy participation. But the NCHE did make a radical proposal, namely massification. However, it conceptualised massification rather naively as increased access, and ducked the political hot potato that characterises all massified systems, namely differentiation.
The NCHE report was vulnerable to counter-arguments that massification would take South Africa down the 'African road' of poor quality massified systems. In reality, no African country except Mauritius has a massified higher education system, in other countries there are only overcrowded elite systems.
The white paper, coming from government, not surprisingly put the emphasis on governance and equity, and translated massification into 'planned expansion' - which contributed to the current low participation rate crisis. Although the Department of Education's National Plan of was meant to be the implementation plan of the white paper, it leaned much more heavily towards efficiency, responding to the dominant economic agenda of the Growth Employment and Redistribution policy of which was being implemented by Trevor Manuel, then minister of finance and now minister of planning.
The institutional mergers of were persuasively sold by then education minister Asmal as an attempt to restructure the apartheid higher education landscape.
However, the mergers were strongly underpinned by the inconsistent application of equity and efficiency policy assumptions.
Some of the inconsistency was brought about by the political bargaining power, or not, of specific institutions. Vision forarrives amid the recently initiated Ministerial Committee for the Review of the Funding of Universities, ministerial statements plans from the Department of Higher Education and Training and the Department of Science and Technology, a flurry of debate about differentiation among vice-chancellors through their association Higher Education South Africa, and a World Bank review of the skills gap in South Africa in press.
But this proved to be impossible. So we posted on the website of the Centre for Higher Education Transformation the overall vision statement, the whole chapter on education and the commissioned higher education report by Nasima Badsha and myself.
It was also not possible to produce a guide through the higher education section roughly pages to because mixed into this section is vision, achievement, description, diagnosis, prescription, targets for the whole education systemfunding, support and a sequencing of proposals for the whole system.
A way to make sense of the higher education section is to reread the whole section a few times and make notes of what is actually 'hidden' in the text. Then it becomes evident that there is a much more coherent approach to higher education than what the disconnected mosaic of discrete paragraphs suggest, and that the underpinning policy intention is much more radical than any previous higher education policy text in South Africa.
The plan's overview starts with reference to the Reconstruction and Development Plan ofthe year democracy was achieved, as the government's previous basis for attacking 'poverty and deprivation'. It then positions the new vision in light of the Diagnostic Report of Junewhich "sets out South Africa's achievements and shortcomings since ".
Since higher education is not mentioned in the Diagnostic Report, it could be assumed that higher education was neither an achievement nor a shortcoming, or perhaps just not worth mentioning. Not regarding higher education as important in development is not new in South Africa, but the new National Development Plan certainly redresses this omission.
The overall central policy intention of the plan is "creating a virtuous cycle of growth and development. It states further that "in this new story our nation's energies are focused both on attacking poverty and on expanding a robust, entrepreneurial and innovative economy" - new words for equity poverty and development enterprise and innovation.
The centre piece at the beginning of the higher education section states that: Universities are key to developing a nation.Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual metin2sell.com education that covers all of these aspects is known as comprehensive sex education.
The Future of Education and Its Challenges in Africa. metin2sell.com Otara Lecturer Kigali Institute of Education (Teferra and Altbach, ). All other universities in Africa have adopted the western model of Materu, )As African countries look to tertiary education to make a significant contribution to economic growth and.
The material is drawn from across Africa, and many countries are used as cases, thus giving the paper a comparative perspective.
Section I is a historical presentation of the evolution of education across Africa. The Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) has taken great strides in education.
It has quadrupled the average level of schooling since , halved illiteracy since and achieved almost complete gender parity for primary education.
Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.
Educational reconstruction and post-colonial curriculum development: A comparative study of four African countries Western education in African conditions was a process of psychological de-ruralisation. The education still exists in Africa and provides socialisation for many youth who never attend.