Many of sociology's main subjects and tenets were shaped by these forces, as can be seen in the work of such early sociologists as Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Georg Simmel, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber. Toward the end of the century, the field experienced other major changes as it spread from Europe to North America and was institutionalized in American universities. In response to the changes in the sociopolitical climate, European scholars, including August Comte, Herbert Spencer, Georg Simmel, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber, developed theories and principles to examine and understand society, in some instances with the hope of restoring order to it. This diverse body of theories and principles became the foundation for the modern discipline of sociology Turner,
Education in the 20th century Social and historical background International wars, together with an intensification of internal stresses and conflicts among social, racial, and ideological groups, characterized the 20th century and had profound effects on education.
Some of the changes that had far-reaching effects were the rapidly spreading prosperity but widening gaps between rich and poor, an immense increase in world population but a declining birth rate in Western countries, the growth of large-scale industry and its dependence on science and technological advancement, the increasing power of both organized labour and international business, and the enormous influence of both technical and sociopsychological advances in communication, especially as utilized in mass media.
Other pivotal changes included challenges to accepted values, such as those supported by religion; changes in social relations, especially toward versions of group and individual equality; and an explosion of knowledge affecting paradigms as well as particular information.
These and other changes marked a century of social and political swings toward a more dynamic and less categorical resolution. The institutional means of handling this uncertain world were to accept more diversity while maintaining basic forms and to rely on management efficiency to ensure practical outcomes.
The two World Wars weakened the military and political might of the larger European powers. One consequence of this was a great increase in the quantity of education provided.
Attempts were made to eradicate illiteracy, and colleges and schools were built everywhere. The growing affluence of masses of the population in high-income areas in North America and Europe brought about, particularly after World War IIa tremendous demand for secondary and higher education.
Most children stayed at school until 16, 17, or even 18 years of age, and a substantial fraction spent at least two years at college.
The number of universities in many countries doubled or trebled between andand the elaboration of the tertiary level continued thereafter. This growth was sustained partly by the industrial requirements of modern scientific technology. New methods, processes, and machines were continually introduced.
Old skills became irrelevant; new industries sprang up. In addition, the amount of scientific—as distinct from merely technical—knowledge grew continually.
Researchers, skilled workers, and high-level professionals were increasingly in demand. The processing of information underwent revolutionary change.
The educational response was mainly to develop technical collegesto promote adult education at all levels, to turn attention to part-time and evening courses, and to provide more training and education within the industrial enterprises themselves.
The adoption of modern methods of food production diminished the need for agricultural workers, who headed for the cities. Urbanizationhowever, brought problems: The poorest remained in those centres, and it became difficult to provide adequate education. The radical change to large numbers of disrupted families, where the norm was a single working parent, affected the urban poor extensively but in all cases raised an expectation of additional school services.
Differences in family background, together with the cultural mix partly occasioned by change of immigration patterns, required teaching behaviour and content appropriate to a more heterogeneous school population.
Major intellectual movements Influence of psychology and other fields on education The attempt to apply scientific method to the study of education dates back to the German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbartwho called for the application of psychology to the art of teaching.
But not until the end of the 19th century, when the German psychologist Wilhelm Max Wundt established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig inwere serious efforts made to separate psychology from philosophy.
William Jamesoften considered the father of American psychology of educationbegan about to lay the groundwork for his psychophysiological laboratory, which was officially founded at Harvard University in Interests must be awakened and broadened as the natural starting points of instruction.
They asked the teacher to help educate heroic individuals who would project daring visions of the future and work courageously to realize them.
Thorndike is credited with the introduction of modern educational psychologywith the publication of Educational Psychology in Thorndike attempted to apply the methods of exact science to the practice of psychology.
James and Thorndike, together with the American philosopher John Deweyhelped to clear away many of the fantastic notions once held about the successive steps involved in the development of mental functions from birth to maturity. Eminent researchers in the field advanced knowledge of behaviour modification, child developmentand motivation.
They studied learning theories ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning and technical models to social theories and open humanistic varieties.
Besides the specific applications of measurement, counselingand clinical psychologypsychology contributed to education through studies of cognitioninformation processingthe technology of instruction, and learning styles.
After much controversy about nature versus nurture and about qualitative versus quantitative methods, Jungianphenomenological, and ethnographic methods took their place alongside psychobiological explanations to help educationists understand the place of hereditygeneral environment, and school in development and learning.
The relationship between educational theory and other fields of study became increasingly close. Social science was used to study interactions and speech to discover what was actually happening in a classroom.
Philosophy of science led educational theorists to attempt to understand paradigmatic shifts in knowledge. Both social philosophy and critical sociology continued to elaborate the themes of social control and oppression as embedded in educational institutions.
In a world of social as well as intellectual change, there were necessarily new ethical questions—such as those dealing with abortionbiological experimentation, and child rights—which placed new demands on education and required new methods of teaching.
Essentialists stressed those human experiences that they believed were indispensable to people of all time periods. Closely related to essentialism was what was called humanistic, or liberal, education in its traditional form. Although many intellectuals argued the case, Robert M.Although sociology has its roots in the works of philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and Confucius, it is a relatively new academic discipline.
It emerged in the early nineteenth century in response to the challenges of modernity. Increasing mobility and technological advances resulted in the. Sociology, as a field of study, emerged in early nineteenth-century Europe as European society and politics were changing as a result of revolution, warfare, reform, industrialization, and.
Discuss how childhood has changed since the 19th century. How do concepts from this period continue to influence current attitudes to childh. Discuss the development of Sociology as a discipline in the 19th century in light of this statement.
Sociology is the study of the lives of humans, groups and societies and how we interact. Dramatic social times occurred because of the massive changes in society that took place leading up .
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-Sociology emerged 19th century (August Comte created name) was hypnotized to repress childhood issues-Hysteria (idea of wanting to return to the womb). 2 The Sociology of Childhood and Youth in the eighteenth century, childhood became increasingly commercialized. Toys, books and games designed speciﬁ cally for children were invented, produced and Thane Childhood in History 5.