This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.
The nouns are mostly concrete - that is, they refer to physical objects - and only two of the nouns are abstract dreams and miracle. It is possible to divide the nouns into two rough areas of meaning, or semantic fields. Table 2 shows how we might do this: Table 2 Distribution of nouns within two basic semantic classes NOUNS RELATED TO NATURE dog, sunlight, leaves, flowers, earth, sky, trees, miracle, world houses, eyes, people, smiles, faces, streets, steeples, dreams, poems, policemen The mixture in the poem of nouns belonging to these two different semantic classes could be said to account for what we perceive as an interconnection between nature and man.
My initial impression of the poem was that there was some kind of conflict between these two elements and this is explained in part by the above table.
The two abstract nouns, dreams and miracle, could belong to either category and might be seen to connect the two semantic classes. If we now look at the verbs in the poem we can see that they create a sense of immediacy as we read it.
They also contribute to our understanding of it as an address to another person. All the verbs which are marked for tense finite verbs are in the present tense.
In addition to helping to establish the sense of immediacy, the progressive present participles 'tumbling' and 'opening' indicate the ongoing 'stretched' nature of the actions. This contributes to the idea of the inevitability of nature - Spring is arriving even as the poet speaks.
This is also reinforced by the four adverbs of manner, which convey a sense of speed quicklyexcitement crazily, eagerly and inevitability irrevocably.
The sense we get of the poem being an address to another person is achieved through the use of directive verbs. Directives can be used for commanding Do your essay!
There are no unusual words in the poem - no neologisms, for example, and no unconventional affixation, which Cummings often uses in his other poems. However, some of the words are arranged on the page in a seemingly strange way. Wonderful, for example, runs across two lines and as a consequence is highly foregrounded.
Dividing the word across the morphemes wonder and ful allows us two interpretative effects. We first read the word as the noun wonder, and then as the adjective wonderful.
The graphological deviation here foregrounds the word and creates a density of meaning. Since deviation is such an apparent feature in ' listen ', it is worth examining it in more detail.
We can also consider parallelism and the foregrounding effects that this creates. This though is typical of Cumming's poetry and so we can't attribute any great significance to it, other than his desire to break with normal convention. However, one of the effects of this graphological deviation is to foreground any instances where Cummings does use capitalisation.
Because of this we can infer that the word 'Spring' in line 19 is an important concept in the poem, since it is the first word we come across with initial capitalisation. Likewise, the final line of the poem  is heavily foregrounded by each word beginning with a capital letter.
This emphasises the idea being expressed here; namely that nothing least of all poetry and nobody is able to stop the progression of Spring or the poet's love for his addressee - not even conventionally powerful people such as policemen.
Cummings perhaps chooses 'policemen' because they are a stereotypical example of powerful people. In addition to the graphological deviations, there are also a number of grammatical deviations in the poem. Many of these occur through Cummings' tendency to use punctuation where it would not normally be necessary.
So, for instance, we get phrases being bracketed where there is no grammatical need, in order to express the notion of two events happening at the same time.
Here, the bracketed part of line 13 seems to mean that leaves and flowers are physically opening at the same time as the poet's dreams are opening metaphorically.
Again, this contributes to our understanding of the poem as being very active and dynamic. Note the additional semantic deviation here - dreams cannot actually open and so this part of the line is foregrounded too, possibly to suggest that with the arrival of Spring the speaker becomes more aware of his dreams and aspirations, more 'open' in the sense of receptive and unguarded.
Cummings tries to capture the idea of a multitude of thoughts occurring simultaneously by breaking grammatical conventions. In addition to his use of bracketed phrases, groups of nouns are often run together without punctuation e.
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