These diseases are transmitted through contact with blood or other bodily fluids, which can occur when sharing needles or other injection drug use equipment. HCV is the most common bloodborne infection in the Unites States.
Medically reviewed on May 18, by L. Common or street names: Heroin diacetylmorphine is derived from the morphine alkaloid found in opium and is roughly times more potent. A highly addictive drug, heroin exhibits euphoric "rush"anxiolytic and analgesic central nervous system properties.
Heroin is classified as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act of and as such has no acceptable medical use in the United States. Pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter taste. Most illicit heroin is sold as a white or brownish powder and is usually "cut" with other drugs or with substances such as sugar, starch, powdered milk, or quinine.
It can also be cut with strychnine or other poisons. Because heroin abusers do not know the actual strength of the drug or its true contents, they are at risk of overdose or death. Another form of heroin known as "black tar" may Herion addiction sticky, like roofing tar, or hard, like coal.
Its color may vary from dark brown to black. Methods of Heroin Use Heroin is most often injected, however, it may also be vaporized "smoked"sniffed "snorted"used as a suppository, or orally ingested.
Smoking and sniffing heroin do not produce a "rush" as Herion addiction or as intensely as intravenous injection. Oral ingestion does not usually lead to a "rush", but use of heroin in suppository form may have intense euphoric effects.
Heroin can be addictive by any given route. Side Effects of Heroin Use Heroin is metabolized to morphine and other metabolites which bind to opioid receptors in the brain.
The short-term effects of heroin abuse appear soon after a single dose and disappear in a few hours. After an injection of heroin, the user reports feeling a surge of euphoria the "rush" accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, and heavy extremities.
Following this initial euphoria, the user experiences an alternately wakeful and drowsy state. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system.
Other effects that heroin may have on users include respiratory depression, constricted "pinpoint" pupils and nausea. Effects of heroin overdose may also include slow and shallow breathing, hypotensionmuscle spasms, convulsionscoma, and possible death.
Other medical complications that may arise due to heroin use include collapsed veins, abscesses, spontaneous abortionand endocarditis inflammation of the heart lining and valves.
Heroin addiction can remove an otherwise healthy and contributing member from society, and may lead to severe disability and eventually death.
Other Health Hazards of Heroin With regular heroin use, tolerance develops where the abuser must use more heroin to achieve the same intensity or effect. As higher doses are used over time, physical dependence and addiction develop.
With physical dependence, the body has adapted to the presence of the drug and withdrawal symptoms may occur if use is reduced or stopped. Withdrawal, which in regular abusers may occur as early as a few hours after the last administration, produces drug craving, restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea and vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps "cold turkey"kicking movements and other symptoms.
Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose and subside after about a week. Sudden withdrawal by heavily dependent users who are in poor health is occasionally fatal, although heroin withdrawal is considered much less dangerous than alcohol or barbiturate withdrawal.
Treatment Options for Heroin Addiction or Overdose Several medical treatment options exist for heroin addiction. These treatments can be effective when combined with a medication compliance program and behavioral therapy.
Methadone DolophineMethadosebuprenorphine Subutexbrand discontinued in U. Sbuprenorphine combined with naloxone Suboxone and naltrexone DepadeReVia are approved in the US to treat opioid dependence.
These treatments work by binding fully or partially to opiate receptors in the brain and work as agonists, antagonists or a combination of the two. Agonists mimic the action of the opiate, and antagonists block and reverse the action of the opiate.Let’s Face Heroin BC is a public service of the Butler County Mental Health and Addiction Recovery Services Board offering firsthand accounts on the effects of heroin, resources and education on overdose and withdrawal, and statistics to aid in the prevention and intervention of heroin and opiate addiction.
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Heroin use in the United States has skyrocketed, and use is increasing among groups previously less likely to abuse the drug according to new federal data. The heroin problem in the United States continues to worsen, with the number of reported users doubling from to , and climbing since.
Heroin overdose deaths have more than tripled in the. Opioid Addiction Prevention. You can make a difference. Learn what you can do at home to help protect your family and loved ones from opioid addiction and drug abuse.
After Facing Husband's Heroin Addiction, West Hartford Couple Start Jewelry Fundraiser For Rehab Center. The final straw came for Rachel Moore early one morning in September For many people who formerly struggled with opiate addiction, the first step toward a fulfilling drug-free life was consulting with a treatment professional about Suboxone and Subutex.