Work in the 21st Century: May Terranova Consulting Group There are an incredible number of pressures on today's organizations. To name a few: Within these pressured organizations, there is a need for and opportunity for the human resource function to play a critical role in helping organizations navigate through these transitions.
The study of religious psychology involves both the gathering and classification of data and the building and testing of various usually rather wide-ranging explanations. The former activity overlaps with the phenomenology of religion, so it is to some extent an arbitrary decision… Early history In Western culturecontributors to the development of psychology came from many areas, beginning with philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle.
Hippocrates philosophized about basic human temperaments e. Informed by the biology of his time, he speculated that physical qualities, such as yellow bile or too much blood, might underlie differences in temperament see also humour.
Two figures who helped to found psychology as a formal discipline and science in the 19th century were Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and William James in the United States.
During the first half of the 20th century, however, behaviourism dominated most of American academic psychology. In John B. Watsonone of the influential founders of behaviourism, urged reliance on only objectively measurable actions and conditions, effectively removing the study of consciousness from psychology.
He argued that psychology as a science must deal exclusively with directly observable behaviour in lower animals as well as humans, emphasized the importance of rewarding only desired behaviours in child rearing, and drew on principles of learning through classical conditioning based on studies with dogs by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and thus known as Pavlovian conditioning.
In the United States most university psychology departments became devoted to turning psychology away from philosophy and into a rigorous empirical science.
Skinner leading the way in demonstrating the power of operant conditioning through reinforcement. Their work showed that social behaviour is readily influenced by manipulating specific contingencies and by changing the consequences or reinforcement rewards to which behaviour leads in different situations.
Changes in those consequences can modify behaviour in predictable stimulus-response S-R patterns. Likewise, a wide range of emotionsboth positive and negative, may be acquired through processes of conditioning and can be modified by applying the same principles. Freud and his followers Concurrently, in a curious juxtapositionthe psychoanalytic theories and therapeutic practices developed by the Vienna-trained physician Sigmund Freud and his many disciples—beginning early in the 20th century and enduring for many decades—were undermining the traditional view of human nature as essentially rational.
Freudian theory made reason secondary: Making the unconscious conscious became the therapeutic goal of clinicians working within this framework. Much of it also reflects conflicts grounded in early childhood that play out in complex patterns of seemingly paradoxical behaviours and symptoms.
His followers, the ego psychologists, emphasized the importance of the higher-order functions and cognitive processes e. They also shifted their focus to the roles of interpersonal relations and of secure attachment in mental health and adaptive functioning, and they pioneered the analysis of these processes in the clinical setting.
After World War II and Sputnik After World War IIAmerican psychology, particularly clinical psychology, grew into a substantial field in its own right, partly in response to the needs of returning veterans. The growth of psychology as a science was stimulated further by the launching of Sputnik in and the opening of the Russian-American space race to the Moon.
As part of this race, the U. For the first time, massive federal funding became available, both to support behavioral research and to enable graduate training.
Psychology became both a thriving profession of practitioners and a scientific discipline that investigated all aspects of human social behaviour, child developmentand individual differences, as well as the areas of animal psychology, sensationperceptionmemoryand learning.
Training in clinical psychology was heavily influenced by Freudian psychology and its offshoots. But some clinical researchers, working with both normal and disturbed populations, began to develop and apply methods focusing on the learning conditions that influence and control social behaviour.
This behaviour therapy movement analyzed problematic behaviours e. Behavioral approaches led to innovations for therapy by working to modify problematic behaviour not through insight, awareness, or the uncovering of unconscious motivations but by addressing the behaviour itself.
They also intended to show that such efforts could be successful without the symptom substitution that Freudian theory predicted. Freudians believed that removing the troubling behaviour directly would be followed by new and worse problems.
Behaviour therapists showed that this was not necessarily the case. To begin exploring the role of genetics in personality and social developmentpsychologists compared the similarity in personality shown by people who share the same genes or the same environment.
Twin studies compared monozygotic identical as opposed to dizygotic fraternal twins, raised either in the same or in different environments. Overall, these studies demonstrated the important role of heredity in a wide range of human characteristics and traits, such as those of the introvert and extravertand indicated that the biological-genetic influence was far greater than early behaviourism had assumed.
At the same time, it also became clear that how such dispositions are expressed in behaviour depends importantly on interactions with the environment in the course of development, beginning in utero. Impact and aftermath of the cognitive revolution By the early s the relevance of the Skinnerian approach for understanding complex mental processes was seriously questioned.The 20th century brought forth several changes in the field of education.
These changes include teaching methods and pedagogies, teaching and learning theories, and new perspectives on where America’s education is heading.
|The influence of technology on the human mind||Psychological science has experienced an unprecedented period of growth and advancement during the last 25 years. Since APS was formed inmany disciplines within the field have flourished and expanded.|
The field of Instructional Technology is fundamentally a 20th century movement with the major advances occurring during and immediately after World War II. major contributing fields were cognitive psychology, social psychology, psychometrics, perception psychology, and management (Ely, ).
During the 20th Century, there was a. 19 technologies that changed nursing forever Anyone who has been in the nursing field for an extended period of time will tell you that a lot has changed. In fact, the twentieth century brought – literally – a technological “invasion” to nursing.
– – Charles A. Strong opened the experimental psychology laboratory at the University of Chicago, the 20th in the United States, at which James Rowland Angell conducted the first experiments of functionalism in How Has Technology Impacted The Field Of Psychology In The 20Th Century Technology in the 20th Century Margie R.
Collins HUM/ The Global Village October 13, Joan Canby Technology in the 20th Century There can be no doubt that the twentieth century is one of the most remarkable unparalleled rate in mankind’s history for its technological advances and scientific discoveries, a rate.
3 Ways Technology Has Affected the Field of Psychology It would be safe to say there isn't a professional field in existence which has not been greatly affected by the advent and advancement of technology.