We have divided the paper into five sections in addition to the introductory and concluding sections. We end with a review of the prevalent political situation in Pakistan.
They are totally different but essential elements of any society. Politicians and soldiers have an interesting relationship in all societies. In societies where civilians are in control, military officers act in accepted boundaries though ready to defend their turf against civilian encroachment.
In societies where political institutions are weak and there is lack of consensus on legitimate course of succession, soldiers gradually expand their area of influence.
They gradually restrict the role of civilians in various areas and sometimes directly take over the state replacing the civilians. This generally accepted model does not mean that military as an institution has no relevance to the important policy decisions.
Even in countries where the tradition of civilian supremacy is well established, military has a political role relating to national security, albeit a different one.
In the end, the complex relationship between soldiers and politicians will be summarized.
Soldiers by nature of their training and job requirement place high value on discipline, recognized chain of command and espirit de corps.
These values are essential for any professional army. Soldiers generalize these values and attitudes to the whole society without appreciating the difficulties and various conflicting demands by interest groups in a modern nation state.
In under-developed countries, the problems are compounded by host of other negative social and economic factors.
Discussion, debate and arguments about different points of view are essential ingredients of politics in every society. The nature of political activity is more chaotic on surface.
Political activity is seen as undermining of the discipline of society and politicians as opportunists and self-seeking demagogues. This thought process is at the root of how a military first withdraws respect and later support of any civilian government which is followed by kicking the quarrelling politicians out of the corridors of power.
The chaos and instability caused by the weak civilian institutions is blamed for paving the way for military to take over the state. This is the universal justification used by all military rulers. Once the politicians are condemned as useless bunch, the question arises then who is competent to run the state?
Now the self-righteous attitude of officer corps comes into play. In under-developed countries, military sees itself as the most modern institution of the society. In addition, being a member of a well organized and disciplined force and overdose of patriotic and nationalistic symbols reinforces the notion that soldiers are more competent than civilians.
The negative attitude of soldiers towards politics is partly related to this fact, which is shared by the civilian bureaucrats. Soldiers look at the policy decisions and difficult conflicts of the society in administrative and technical terms.
In case of Pakistan, this thought process is deeply rooted in the colonial past of the country. British colonial policy makers in twentieth century thought that natives were not educated enough or mature enough to run their own affairs.
What they needed was a good administration. Make sure that law and order is maintained and there is peaceful environment for economic activity.Watch video · Inside Story 22 Jul GMT Pakistan, Pakistan elections , Politics, Elections, Asia Tens of millions of voters in Pakistan will head to the polls this week to choose a new government.
It has been a tumultuous few weeks for the country of nearly million people. A valid e-mail address. All e-mails from the system will be sent to this address. The e-mail address is not made public and will only be used if you wish to receive a new password or wish to receive certain news or notifications by e-mail.
However, after the resignation of President Pervez Musharraf in , a sharp line has been drawn between the Military and politics and Pakistan is moving closer to becoming a Liberal Democracy.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Pakistan as "hybrid regime" in The politics of Pakistan takes place within the framework established by the constitution.
The country is a federal parliamentary republic in which provincial governments enjoy a high degree of autonomy and residuary powers. The three books under review—The Army and Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan by Aqil Shah, Fighting to the End: The Pakistan Army’s Way of War by C.
Christine Fair, and The Warrior State: Pakistan in the Contemporary World by T.V. Paul—are the latest additions to the literature on Pakistan.
Pakistan - Politics. Pakistanis often complain that they are ruled by Allah, America, and the Army. The army generals are in charge of Pakistan; they have a firm grip over defense and security.