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National Center on Response to Intervention This is the first article in a three-part series. In this three-part series, we present an overview of the issues most relevant to the development and implementation of Response to Intervention RtI models in contemporary urban schools.
This first article focuses on describing the broad challenges faced by and within urban school systems in effectively educating students.
These issues, we contend, should be well considered—and addressed when possible—prior to implementing an RtI framework. The second article in the series focuses on how RtI frameworks in urban schools should be designed to consider the cultural dimensions of racialization and linguistic hegemony that limit equitable opportunities Novice teacher stressors learn.
The third article seeks to present promising examples of how RTI practices that consider cultural dimensions operate in urban schools. As such, it is designed as a model for the prevention of long-term academic failure and thus, is a potentially powerful tool for addressing Novice teacher stressors needs of all students in all contexts.
Urban School Challenges It is important to note that the challenges facing urban school systems are not entirely unique to metropolitan areas, nor are all urban school systems confronted with the same challenges.
Urban schools do, however, share some unique physical and demographic characteristics that differentiate them from suburban and rural school districts. Unlike suburban and rural school districts, urban school districts operate in densely populated areas serving significantly more students.
In comparison to suburban and rural districts, urban school districts are frequently marked by higher concentrations of poverty, greater racial and ethnic diversity, larger concentrations of immigrant populations and linguistic diversity, and more frequent rates of student mobility Kincheloe, While sociodemographics are not themselves the challenge of urban school systems, they speak to the broader social and economic inequities facing such populations that invariably frame the work of urban schools.
As Orfield explained, segregation and poverty underlie grander issues in urban education systems: It is wrong to assume that segregation is irrelevant, and policies that ignore that fact simply punish the victims of segregation because they fail to take into account many of the causes of the inequality…Current policy built on [this assumption] cannot produce the desired results and may even compound the existing inequalities.
The challenges of urban education cannot be divorced from its sociodemographic context. Stuctural Challenges Urban school systems tend to have specific structural challenges that impede their ability to effectively educate the most vulnerable students.
While these structural challenges may be evidenced across all types of educational contexts, they are perhaps most potent in urban settings. They include 1 persistently low student achievement, 2 a lack of instructional coherence, 3 inexperienced teaching staff, 4 poorly functioning business operations, and 5 low expectations of students Kincheloe,; MDRC, We discuss each briefly below and provide suggestions for addressing these structural challenges.
Low Student AchievementEven in the midst of tremendous political attention, low student performance persists. This is often exemplified by a large number of students performing poorly on achievement tests and not performing at grade level, as well as high rates of high school noncompletion and special education classification.
The vast majority of students want to succeed in school and view school as important to being successful in life, but structural barriers both inside and outside school often stand in the way of the realization of this Theoharis, A Lack of Instructional CoherenceUrban schools are bombarded with so many instructional initiatives and approaches that they can become fragmented, or indeed contradict one another.
Moreover, urban school initiatives should be carefully chosen, with attention paid to what is already being implemented within the school district. Urban school initiatives should utilize expertise within the schools for coaching and program building so that institutional knowledge can be passed on to new and novice teachers who have perhaps the greatest need for professional learning supports.
Inexperienced Teaching StaffThe issue of teacher quality is considered central to growing efforts to understand and reduce performance gaps in achievement between students of color and their White and Asian peers Ferguson, Students in schools with high concentrations of low-income Black and Latino students are more likely to have inexperienced or unqualified teachers, fewer demanding college preparatory courses, more remedial courses, and higher teacher turnover Lee, Aside from the school building itself, teachers are perhaps the most visible school resource.
Extensive research has demonstrated that teachers have a significant impact on student achievement e. Teachers become more effective the longer they teach.
In his review of teacher research, Goldhaber highlighted studies that consistently demonstrate teachers becoming increasingly more effective in the first 3 to 5 years of teaching.to Novice Teacher Success, Commitment, and Retention By Melanie Tait stressors encountered in the firstyear of teaching, such as the expectations and scope Resilience as a Contributor to Novice Teacher Success.
Melanie Tait. Frequently in my early teaching career, I taught a computer literacy course. In this course I taught my student that a computer is a machine for the input, storage, processing, and output of information.
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Having the ability to deal with stressors is vital in teacher retention.
This study investigated causes of stress and ways to alleviate stress for novice elementary teachers. (Contains 1 table.).
This is the first article in a three-part series. In this three-part series, we present an overview of the issues most relevant to the development and implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) models in contemporary urban schools. Dec 30, · Teachers Are Stressed, And That Should Stress Us All: Jennings was a teacher herself for two decades and now studies stress in the classroom as a .