By Saul McLeodupdated Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslowbut added that for a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness openness and self-disclosureacceptance being seen with unconditional positive regardand empathy being listened to and understood. Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water. Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place.
Contemporary Theory, Chapter 1 Theories of the psychology of concepts are as diverse as psychology itself.
But I will limit myself to a fairly general review of the most well-known theories, and without paying attention to the evolution of the views of particular writers. The dominant trend of the psychology of concepts in the Anglophone world at the moment is the American current which originated from the Cognitive Revolution of the s with people like Jerome Bruner, Jacqueline Goodnow, George Austin and others.
There are others who have reacted critically to this current, and I will come to these later. These writers seem to agree that nothing was known of the psychology of concepts prior to the Cognitive Revolution, and apart from gestures to Gottlob Frege, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Plato, nothing of value had been established in the science beyond their own work.
Even though they are rediscovering ideas which are centuries old, the laboratory methods of investigation they have brought to bear on the theory of concepts are novel and have brought about a rapid turn-over in theories of the concept. Although a number of different theories have been developed, a common philosophical base has meant that this group of investigators share a number of key assumptions.
In general, I try to use the word concepts to talk about mental representations of classes of things, and categories to talk about the classes themselvesp. It is taken as given that concepts are mental representations, that is, that concepts are entities or images of some kind inside the head.
So we have two distinct worlds: It is further assumed that these concepts sort objects in the material world into categories, with each object individually isolable in some unspecified way prior to being grouped into categories. Some writers observe with some curiosity that their experimental subjects, on the contrary, seem to believe that objects have an essence transcending their contingent attributes.
Ruth Millikan put it well when she said: One could just as well have said that the President is not President because he looks presidential, but because he was elected. Generally speaking, these writers accept that people acquire concepts through social experience, but in line with this whole current of thinking, in their experimental work, they strive so far as possible to isolate their subjects from their normal living conditions and create laboratory conditions artificially insulated from social life.
The view is that even if people have acquired the concepts they have in the course of life experience, that has no significance for the nature of the concepts themselves and there is no suspicion that tests carried out in the laboratory using made-up concepts will fail to reproduce what is essential to the psychology of concepts.
But does the means a person uses to make a selection in a multiple-choice questionnaire reflect the way they act in the course of some social interaction? Finally, for this current of cognitive psychology, the archetypal concept is the concept of a thing, typically an artificial object with no special social significance, which can be exhaustively described in terms of its visual properties, or a common artefact or a natural kind, depending on what the researcher is trying to prove.
Everything that is to be learnt of the psychology of concepts is to be developed from such models. As Gregory Murphy put it: Although the field and hence this book concentrates on common object concepts, the principle involving concept formation and use are thought to be to some degree generalizable across different domains and settings Murphyp.
So, essentially we have a theory of object-categorisation, rather than a theory of concepts. Consider for a moment how far the practice of pigeon-holing reflects the understanding of concepts like those mentioned in the introduction.
Categorisation is relevant only at the margins, when, pressed to make a categorisation decision, you seize upon some criterion to be made the litmus test in the immediate instance. But locating the border lines of a phenomenon does not tell you about the concept of the thing itself.Angela Duckworth is a MacArthur “genius” grant winner, researcher, and author of Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance.
Aug 11, · This article was originally written for Psychology , Theories of Personality.
It examines the subject of the Concept of Humanity. It also discusses the subject of Karen Horney and her psychoanalytical social theory regarding how her approach to psychology reveals her personal concept of metin2sell.coms: 2. Five major concepts used in psychology to explain human behavior are the biological, learning, cognitive, psychoanalytic and sociocultural perspectives.
A majority of psychologists take an eclectic approach, using components of all five concepts to understand and address different human behaviors. Priming is a nonconscious form of human memory concerned with perceptual identification of words and objects.
It refers to activating particular representations or associations in memory just. Choose the Right Synonym for concept. Noun. idea, concept, conception, thought, notion, impression mean what exists in the mind as a representation (as of something comprehended) or as a formulation (as of a plan).
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