Critics frequently state, or imply that LDS scholars are not real scholars. LDS scholarship is biased.
Etymology[ edit ] The term " mangrove " comes to English from Spanish perhaps by way of Portugueseand is likely to originate from Guarani. It was earlier "mangrow" from Portuguese mangue or Spanish manglebut this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word " grove ".
Areas where mangals occur include estuaries and marine shorelines. High tide brings in salt water, and when the tide recedes, solar evaporation of the seawater in the soil leads to further increases in salinity.
The return of tide can flush out these soils, bringing them back to salinity levels comparable to that of seawater. At low tide, organisms are also exposed to increases in temperature and desiccation, and are then cooled and flooded by the tide. Thus, for a plant to survive in this environment, it must tolerate broad ranges of salinity, temperature, and moisture, as well as a number of other key environmental factors—thus only a select few species make up the mangrove tree community.
About species are considered "mangroves", in the sense of being a tree that grows in such a saline swamp,  though only a few are from the mangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a given mangrove swamp typically features only a small number of tree species.
It is not uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature only three or four tree species. For comparison, the tropical rainforest biome contains thousands of tree species, but this is not to say mangrove forests lack diversity.
Though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home habitat for a great variety of other species.
Mangrove plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxiahigh salinity and frequent tidal inundation. Each species has its own solutions to these problems; this may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines, mangrove tree species show distinct zonation.
Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to greatly differing methods for coping with the environment. Therefore, the mix of species is partly determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, such as tidal inundation and salinity, but may also be influenced by other factors, such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs.
Once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is already occurring. The fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy trace metals which colloidal particles in the sediments have scavenged from the water.
Mangrove removal disturbs these underlying sediments, often creating problems of trace metal contamination of seawater and biota. Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge especially during hurricanesand tsunamis. Wave energy is typically low in areas where mangroves grow,  so their effect on erosion is measured over long periods.
Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottoms as their home. Mangrove plantations in VietnamThailandPhilippines and India host several commercially important species of fishes and crustaceans.
Mangrove forests can decay into peat deposits because of fungal and bacterial processes as well as by the action of termites.
It becomes peat in good geochemical, sedimentary and tectonic conditions. In Puerto Rico the red Rhizophora manglewhite Laguncularia racemosa and black Avicennia germinans mangroves occupy different ecological niches and have slightly different chemical compositions so the carbon content varies between the species as well between the different tissues of the plant e.
Termites are an important part of this decay, and so an understanding of their action on the organic matter is crucial to the chemical stabilization of mangrove peats. Globally, mangroves stored 4.The first major migration of Portuguese people to southeastern Massachusetts can be explained by the whaling industry, according to the director of the Center for Portuguese Studies at University.
Portuguese exploration had lots of positive effects but the natives experienced all the negative effects. Maybe it would be better if the Portuguese respected others more and did all the work themselves!!!!
The Impact of Portuguese Exploration On Angola According to Mr Bamba A Talk by Mr Bamba, Room 23 October, Many lands were colonized by European countries. Angola was colonized by Portugal. Before Angola was organized into kingdoms.
Zhinga was one of the Queens in the Kingdom of the Congo. – Angola was. Facts and statistics about the Environment - current issues of Portugal.
Updated as of odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their.
Nat Turner’s Southampton Slave Revolt - Nat Turner was a man with a vision that would change America forever. His vision may have not sounded right to the average person but to Nat Turner, he was on Earth to realize his vision. While the prior page was more about colonization motivation and methods, this page is more about good planets, hell-hole planets, scouting good planets, and changing hell-hole planets into good planets.