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Lecture 23 The Age of Ideologies 1: General Introduction It must.
Thus only is he fully conscious; thus only is he a partaker of morality -- of a just and moral social and political life. For Truth is the unity of the universal. The state is the Divine Idea as it exists on Earth.
Hegel, The Philosophy of History When we review the intellectual history of the 19th century in panorama, we cannot help but be struck by the enormous profusion of ideologies that century managed to produce: Liberalism, conservatism, Marxism, Darwinism, Positivism, idealism, Hegelianism, socialism, Owenism, anarchism, communism, Romanticism and the list seems to go on and on.
I would suggest that the proliferation of these -isms, of these grandiose systems, was the product of an age in which intellectual life had become much more complex and intense. And there are several reasons for this complexity and intensity.
First, the area concerned was larger than ever. For instance, American and Russian thinkers were beginning to make important contributions. Historically, western intellectual life had been confined to the European Continent. Now, it seemed, intellectual life had become more global.
At the same time, European thinkers were becoming more aware of ancient thought. This development has a great deal to do with the development of anthropology as well as Darwinian evolutionary theory and the geological discoveries of Charles Lyell Eastern thought began to pervade western ideas during the 19th century.
Many of the British Romantic poets were quite taken with eastern ideas as was the midth century German thinker Arthur Schopenhauerwhose ideas were to later influence Friedrich Nietzsche In general, new ideas and with them, a new vocabulary, entered into European intellectual discourse Second, science, which had been chiefly a novelty throughout the 18th century, now made new conquests.
This was especially so in the fields of geology, biology, botany and organic chemistry. The newest developments in the sciences were primarily in the physical and life sciences, all founded in the early part of the 19th century.
Another way of looking at science in the 19th century is to say that whereas the 17th and 18th centuries were keen on investigating Nature from the standpoint of what was inorganic and heavenly, the 19th century discovered and took a lively interest in what was organic, vital and living.
Third, machine production, the factory system and the cash nexus profoundly altered the social structure first of England and then, by the end of the century, throughout Europe and eventually the world. This revolution in industry -- the Industrial Revolution -- gave man a new conception of power in relation to his physical environment see Lecture The Industrial Revolution was indeed revolutionary -- never before had the mode of production been so forcefully altered in such a short space of historical time.
The Industrial Revolution, furthermore, was not simply some backdrop to other, more important events. It was the event itself, and such an event profoundly transformed all men and women directly and immediately. As Raymond Williams once remarked: The changes that we receive as record were experienced, in these years, on the senses; hunger, suffering, conflict, dislocation; hope, energy, vision, dedication.
The pattern of change was not background, as we may now be inclined to study it, it was, rather, the mould in which general experience was cast.
Culture and SocietyNew York,p. And with industrialization and the development of industrial capitalism, a whole new set of social, political, cultural and intellectual problems entered the European mind at all levels.
No one was left untouched by this revolution in industry.
Fourth and lastly, there was also a profound revolt, a revolt both philosophical and political, against traditional systems of thought. This revolt had two faces -- one was Romantic and stressed the irrational and unreason, the other was rationalistic and stressed the human capacity of reason and rationality.
The 18th century Age of Enlightenment was firmly entrenched in the capacities of Human Reason. But by the end of the century and into the early part of the 19th century, a reaction set in.Answer the following questions Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenal world?
How does Kant answer Hume's bundle theory of the self? Laureano Ralón – Founder & Editor-in-Chief Judie Cross – Scholarly Editor Julia Schwartz – Arts Editor. Compare and contrast the classical worldview with the medieval.
Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenal world? 4. Why does Kant claim that the only thing good-in-itself is a good will? Explain exactly what he means. Is he right? 5. What is the categorical imperative? Compare and contrast the classical worldview with the medieval.
Be specific. Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenal world?
ChWhy did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenal world? ChHow does Kant answer Hume's bundle theory of the self? Do you think he is . In terms of ethics, Kant takes the noumenal realm to be a necessary condition for the existence of morality. That's because we need to be free in order to be moral agents, but we're not free insofar as we're phenomenal beings constrained by the laws of nature. Chapters 9: the rationalist René Descartes 1. What was Descartes proposal, and how did his scholastic education influence it? Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenal world? 2. How does Kant answer Hume's bundle theory of the self? Do you think he is successful? 3. Describe the moral dimension as Kant.
4. Why does Kant claim that the only thing good-in-itself is a good will? Explain exactly what he means. Is . Answer: Kant thought it is important to point the existence of the noumenal world because of two reasons. First is that it shows us the limits of human understanding. second, it is necessary in order to establish a foundation for moral philosophy capable of presenting the moral autonomy and sentiments in light of the onslaught from science and the mean philosophy.
Kieshana Joan Miles Dr. Marcos Arandia Philosophy Lesson 6 Reflection: Post Reading Reflection Questions CHAPTER 11 1. Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenally world? According to Kant reality is organized by human understanding (Ch, Pg.
) and in order to establish the true limitations of reason. 89%(9).